I no longer want to find you, Camilo

Flowers for Camilo Cienfuegos at a primary school in Havana's Plaza district (14ymedio)

Flowers for Camilo Cienfuegos at a primary school in Havana’s Plaza district (14ymedio)

14ymedio, Generation Y, Yoani Sanchez, Havana, 28 October 2015 — The wall of the Malecon tastes of salt and is rough to the touch. Standing on it, my school uniform splashed by the waves, every October of my childhood I threw a bouquet of flowers into the sea. The tribute was addressed to a man who had died fifteen years before I was born. His face was on the walls and in schoolbooks, with an enormous smile beneath a broad-brimmed hat. Those were the days when I still dreamed of meeting Camilo Cienfuegos.

The story, repeated to the point of exhaustion in school assemblies and official propaganda, told of a plane that disappeared while the Commander was flying between the cities of Camagüey and Havana. For the children of my generation it was an almost magical enigma. We believed that one day we would find him, a bearded jokester, somewhere in the Cuban geography. It was just a matter of time, we thought.

But the years passed and on this long and narrow island there has never been detected even a single piece of that twin-engine Cessna. New technologies burst into everyone’s lives, satellites search every inch of the planet, and mythical cities, submerged or buried, are found all over the globe. But of Camilo, not a single clue.

The illusion that he would return to unite “the highest leadership of the country” was giving way to another desire. In the mid-eighties I heard talk of Camilo Cienfuegos as the hope for change. “If he were here, none of this would have happened,” the elderly intoned. “He wasn’t a communist,” my grandfather said.

Once again we want to find alive the hero of Yaguajay, but this time to lead our dissatisfaction and to help us overcome our fear.

In the Special Period the urge to discover at least a vestige of that tailor-turned-guerrilla forcefully resurfaced. We speculated that if the circumstances of his death were unraveled, Fidel Castro’s government would fall like a house of cards. The best-kept secret of the Revolutionary era would also be its end. But even in those years the mystery was not solved.

A few days ago a little girl reminded her mother she needed to take a bouquet of flowers to school to throw into the sea on the day this Havanan not yet turned 30 disappeared. A second later the girl asked, “But is he dead, or is he not dead?” Her mother explained the official version in a bored voice, ending with a categorical, “Yes, he’s dead… he is not breathing.”

The mystery has collapsed. Not because we found answers, but because we got tired of waiting for them. Right now, nothing would change because we know that Camilo Cienfuegos is alive somewhere – with his graying beard – unless it is scientifically proven that the official version is true. Nor would there be a great commotion on finding out his death was an assassination order by his own compañeros from the Sierra Maestra.

Time, implacable, has ended up burying Camilo.

Camilo Cienfuegos. (CC)

Camilo Cienfuegos. (CC)

80 thoughts on “I no longer want to find you, Camilo

    Nov 6, 2015 – 10:00am to 1:00pm
    Stephen P. Clark Government Center,
    111 NW First Street Miami, Florida 33128
    Panel I
    Mr. Antonio Rodiles
    Cuban Dissident

    Ms. Sylvia Iriondo
    Mothers and Women Against Repression (M.A.R. por Cuba)

    The Reverend Mario Felix Lleonart Barroso
    Ebenezer Baptist Church in Villa Clara, Cuba
    Panel II

    Ms. Adriana López Vermut
    Sister of Leopoldo López

    Ms. Ibeyise Pacheco
    Venezuelan Journalist and Writer

    Mr. Carlos Vecchio Demari
    National Political Coordinator
    Voluntad Popular

    Chairman Duncan on the hearing: “In both Cuba and Venezuela, repressive governments brutally restrict freedom of expression, association, press, and religion. The Castro and Maduro regimes deny basic human rights to those whom they see as a threat to their control. While the world has stood watching, these governments have continued their acts of violence against their people with impunity. Using threats, imprisonment, beatings, and torture, these governments have sought to censure and silence freedom, dissent, and any form of opposition using the sham trappings of democracy, rule of law, and independence. This hearing will provide a rare opportunity to hear from very courageous individuals who have been personally impacted by these governments’ repression. It is my hope that this hearing will provide direction for the United States as we consider our policies towards these countries.”


    If we’d give each Guantanamo prisoner $1 000 000 and said: get lost, we close this disgrace to the justice, how would this affect US federal budget?

    US federal budget (and the taxpayer) would be better off by $288 million.

    This is because Guantanamo prison costs $400 million per year and there are 112 prisoners.


    US president is really a powerless puppet. The Pentagon rules.

  3. Designer Arturo Vittori believes the solution to this catastrophe lies not in high technology, but in sculptures that look like giant-sized objects from the pages of a Pier 1 catalog.

    His stunning water towers stand nearly 30 feet tall and can collect over 25 gallons of potable water per day by harvesting atmospheric water vapor. Called WarkaWater towers, each pillar is comprised of two sections: a semi-rigid exoskeleton built by tying stalks of juncus or bamboo together and an internal plastic mesh, reminiscent of the bags oranges come in. The nylon and polypropylene fibers act as a scaffold for condensation, and as the droplets of dew form, they follow the mesh into a basin at the base of the structure.

    warka-08Click to Open Overlay Gallery
    “WarkaWater is designed to provide clean water as well as ensure long-term environmental, financial and social sustainability,” says designer Arturo Vittori. Photo: Gabriele Rigon

    Vittori decided to devote his attention to this problem after visiting northeastern Ethiopia and seeing the plight of remote villagers first hand. “There, people live in a beautiful natural environment but often without running water, electricity, a toilet or a shower,” he says. To survive, women and their children walk for miles to worm-filled ponds contaminated with human waste, collect water in trashed plastic containers or dried gourds, and carry the heavy containers on treacherous roads back to their homes. This process takes hours and endangers the children by exposing them to dangerous illnesses and taking them away from school, ensuring that a cycle of poverty repeats.

    Exposure to this horrific scene motivated Vittori to take action. “WarkaWater is designed to provide clean water as well as ensure long-term environmental, financial and social sustainability,” he says. “Once locals have the necessary know how, they will be able to teach others villages and communities to build the WarkaWater towers.” Each tower costs approximately $550 and can be built in under a week with a four-person team and locally available materials.

  4. In a familiar high-school chemistry demonstration, an instructor first uses electricity to split liquid water into its constituent gases, hydrogen and oxygen. Then, by combining the two gases and igniting them with a spark, the instructor changes the gases back into water with a loud pop.
    Scientists at the University of Illinois have discovered a new way to make water, and without the pop. Not only can they make water from unlikely starting materials, such as alcohols, their work could also lead to better catalysts and less expensive fuel cells.
    “We found that unconventional metal hydrides can be used for a chemical process called oxygen reduction, which is an essential part of the process of making water,” said Zachariah Heiden, a doctoral student and lead author of a paper accepted for publication in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, and posted on its Web site.
    A water molecule (formally known as dihydrogen monoxide) is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. But you can’t simply take two hydrogen atoms and stick them onto an oxygen atom. The actual reaction to make water is a bit more complicated: 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O + Energy.
    In English, the equation says: To produce two molecules of water (H2O), two molecules of diatomic hydrogen (H2) must be combined with one molecule of diatomic oxygen (O2). Energy will be released in the process.
    “This reaction (2H2 + O2 = 2H2O + Energy) has been known for two centuries, but until now no one has made it work in a homogeneous solution,” said Thomas Rauchfuss, a U. of I. professor of chemistry and the paper’s corresponding author.
    The well-known reaction also describes what happens inside a hydrogen fuel cell.
    In a typical fuel cell, the diatomic hydrogen gas enters one side of the cell, diatomic oxygen gas enters the other side. The hydrogen molecules lose their electrons and become positively charged through a process called oxidation, while the oxygen molecules gain four electrons and become negatively charged through a process called reduction. The negatively charged oxygen ions combine with positively charged hydrogen ions to form water and release electrical energy.
    The “difficult side” of the fuel cell is the oxygen reduction reaction, not the hydrogen oxidation reaction, Rauchfuss said. “We found, however, that new catalysts for oxygen reduction could also lead to new chemical means for hydrogen oxidation.”
    Rauchfuss and Heiden recently investigated a relatively new generation of transfer hydrogenation catalysts for use as unconventional metal hydrides for oxygen reduction.
    In their JACS paper, the researchers focus exclusively on the oxidative reactivity of iridium-based transfer hydogenation catalysts in a homogenous, non-aqueous solution. They found the iridium complex effects both the oxidation of alcohols, and the reduction of the oxygen.
    “Most compounds react with either hydrogen or oxygen, but this catalyst reacts with both,” Heiden said. “It reacts with hydrogen to form a hydride, and then reacts with oxygen to make water; and it does this in a homogeneous, non-aqueous solvent.”
    The new catalysts could lead to eventual development of more efficient hydrogen fuel cells, substantially lowering their cost, Heiden said.
    The work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. One Australian inventor has an interesting invention to make water. Max Whisson is the creator of the Whisson Windmill, a machine that uses wind power to collect water out of the atmosphere. Whisson points out to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation that water vapor amounts to about “10,000 billion litres [about 2,600 billion gallons] in the bottom kilometere [about .62 miles] of air around the world” . What’s more, this water is replaced every few hours as part of the water cycle.

    Whisson’s windmill uses refrigerant to cool the blades of his mill, which he’s named Max Water. These blades are situated vertically rather than diagonally, so that even the slightest breeze turns them. The cool blades cool the air, causing the water vapor to condense — become liquid water again. This condensation is then collected and stored. Whisson’s windmill can collect as much as 2,600 gallons of water from the air per day.

    Whisson says that his biggest challenge isn’t the engineering behind his invention but finding the venture capital to back it — he says that people think it’s too good to be true. This problem would sound familiar to a pair of American inventors who have a water-making invention of their own.

    Jonathan Wright and David Richards have created a machine that’s similar to Whisson’s, except that it resembles a collapsible pull-behind camper more than it favors a windmill. This invention — which its creators call AquaMagic — pulls air directly from the area surrounding it. Inside the machine, the air is cooled via a refrigerated coil. The air condenses, and the water is collected, purified, and released through a spigot.

    The AquaMagic machine — which currently cost about $28,000 per unit — can produce up to 120 gallons of purified water in 24 hours, and since it’s small it can be toted to disaster sites and Sub-Saharan Africa alike. But it also has one drawback: To produce this much water, AquaMagic requires about 12 gallons of diesel fuel. It’s here that the Whisson Windmill (which runs about $43,000 per unit) has a clear advantage over AquaMagic: It’s totally green. It runs exclusively on wind power, requiring no fossil fuel. Even the condenser runs off the power generated by the windmill’s turbines.

  6. Moringa Flocculation

    The moringa tree pod contains a seed, which when crushed, is a natural flocculant. Users pick and dry the pods, and then remove the seeds. The seeds are shelled, crushed using a mortar and pestle, and about 2 grams of the seeds are added to 20 liters of water. The water is stirred for five minutes, and users let the water settle for 24 hours before decanting it off into another container. The benefit of moringa is that it is an effective flocculant. The drawbacks are that it is time- and labor-intensive, the dosing of moringa varies for different water, two containers are required, and the moringa flavor may be objectionable. In laboratory studies, the use of moringa significantly reduced the turbidity of water, but also significantly increased the chlorine demand of the water because of the additional organic material. The use of moringa is not recommended in conjunction with chlorine-based disinfectants.


    A moringa tree with pods Ground seeds Shelled and unshelled seeds (CDC, D. Lantagne)

  7. Simple Options to Remove Turbidity

    The health consequences of inadequate water and sanitation services include an estimated 4 billion cases of diarrhea and 1.9 million deaths each year, mostly among young children in developing countries. Diarrheal diseases lead to decreased food intake and nutrient absorption, malnutrition, reduced resistance to infection, and impaired physical growth and cognitive development. Since 1996, a large body of published work has proven the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality through household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) at reducing diarrheal disease. However, not all of these interventions remove the turbidity that causes water to look dirty. Although the following options are not proven to reduce diarrheal disease incidence on their own, they can be used to pre-treat water to reduce turbidity before the use of household water treatment products. These options mechanically (through filtration) or chemically (through flocculation and settling of suspended material) remove particles and reduce turbidity. These pre-treatment methods may also increase the efficacy of household water treatment products by removing contaminants that interfere with disinfection and physical filtration processes. For more information, contact safewater@cdc.gov.

  8. Humberto: :) :) :) :)……the video about the water shortages ends with the Cuban flag and freedom, freedom ….:) :) :) …implying that the decertification problem in the Caribbean will be solved with freedom!!, freedom!!!…. :) :) :) ,….and the woman…how many children you have????…well I have (5) children….exactly the major catalyst of Climate Change in the World….too large a population of human beings….too much Freedom is actually the major contributing factor to the problem…not the solution to the problem….

  9. UNESCO-IHE recently started the project ‘+AGUA PARA TODOS: Adapting to Climate Change and Mitigating Water Scarcity by Innovative Urban Water Management in Cuba’. This project whose short name accounts for “MORE WATER FOR ALL”, and is led by Carlos Lopez Vazquez from UNESCO-IHE, has research and capacity development components, which will both contribute to the alleviation of water scarcity issues in Cuba. The project is funded by the European Union (project No. DCI-ENV/2010/247-301) and has a duration of three years.
    The project aims to alleviate this water scarcity issue in Cuba through the introduction of innovative practices, including decreasing the demand for freshwater, encouraging wastewater reuse, and use of seawater as secondary quality water in the urban environment. One of those innovative practices is a seawater toilet flushing system, developed by the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST).
    “Leveraging Hong Kong’s unique seawater flushing system, we have developed a novel, energy-efficient and low carbon sewage treatment technology,” said Prof Guanghao Chen of HKUST about this system. “The ‘Sulphate Reduction, Autotrophic Denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI) Process’ can eliminate 90% of sewage sludge production, and reduce sewage treatment costs by 50%, space requirements by over 50%, and cut down greenhouse gas emissions by 35%.” Moreover, the project also includes the conversation of part of a tourist resort near Havana to seawater toilet flushing, reuse of wastewater for onsite irrigation, and use of the SANI Process for wastewater treatment, to serve as a showcase for other cities in Cuba.

  10. — The worst drought in five years is creeping across the Caribbean, prompting officials around the region to brace for a bone dry summer.
    From Puerto Rico to Cuba to the eastern Caribbean island of St. Lucia, crops are withering, reservoirs are drying up and cattle are dying while forecasters worry that the situation could only grow worse in the coming months.
    Thanks to El Nino, a warming of the tropical Pacific that affects global weather, forecasters expect the hurricane season that began in June to be quieter than normal, with a shorter period of rains.

  11. YOUTUBE: Escasez de agua en Cuba. Así viven los cubanos – Water shortages in Cuba. This is how ordinary Cubans live.


    CUBA TRANSITION PROJECT – Institute for Cuban & Cuban-American Studies at University of Miami – 2006

    Water Pollution – According to the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), water pollution in Cuba is a serious concern, particularly since there is a marked lack of infrastructure to address the issue. Of the 2,160 main contaminant sources recognized by UNEP, 1,273 or 59 percent, release their pollution into the Cuban environment without any treatment whatsoever. Another 433, or roughly 20 percent, receive limited but inadequate treatment before being discharged. (2) This analysis included agricultural sources of contamination, as well as industrial and human waste.

    Despite its clear importance to the citizens of Cuba, the treatment of urban sewage in particular is extremely limited: only 17 or 18 percent receives any treatment before discharge into Cuban waterways. (3) The infrastructure of water and sanitation are beyond the breaking point and are close to catastrophic failure. Havana’s sewer system, which was built almost a hundred years ago, has been due for major repairs for almost five decades and is serving over two million citizens, well beyond its design capacity of 400,000. (4)

    The Cuban government has recognized this as a major environmental problem on the island, conceding that “pollution in our ground and marine waters has gradually aggravated…caused mainly by the deficient state of the sewerage and its incomplete nature in the majority of cases.” (5) UNEP reported an approximate total of 341,716 tons per year of organic material discharged into Cuban waters, equivalent to the pollution generated by a population of over 22.3 million people. It is worth noting that this level is twice the actual 2005 population of 11.2 million. (6)

    The effects of this system on the Cuban environment have been severe. Cuban bays are widely recognized as being among the most polluted in the world. (7) The Almendares River, which flows through Havana, carries the untreated sewage of over 42,000 people directly to Havana Harbor and coastal waters. (8) There has been evidence that in Havana, an underground aquifer that provides 36% of the city’s potable water that runs directly beneath the polluted Almendares, represents a very high risk of widespread drinking water contamination for the city. (9)

    This is a phenomenon that is being replicated throughout the country: it has been estimated that annually 863.4 billion gallons of contaminated water finds its way into Cuba’s rivers, much of it industrial. (10) A recent study of the groundwater in Moa, usually a naturally protected resource, concluded that a new water source for the population of Moa must be developed quickly, as the present source will be increasingly contaminated with heavy metals much of it from the nickel industry in the medium to long-term. (11) Tourist facilities have also exhibited insufficient treatment regimens, as many either pump waste directly into the sea at some distance from the coast, or use small oxidation pools, and release lightly treated water into the ocean. (12)



  13. Neutral Observer,

    Don’t dwell so much on whether Camilo was assassinated or not. The United States systematically helped the PRI party of Mexico and Fox and Nieto to kill all the leadership and support of the Socialist movement in Mexico because it is not in the best interest of the United States for Mexico to have a government of the People. Camilo, in my opinion, was not committed to eliminate the U.S. control of Cuba and therefore, he was on the wrong side of history in his time. Recognize that Camilo, like Matos vision of a Cuban government back then was more of the same. They erroneously concluded that eliminating Batista was the only change needed in Cuba. The correct conclusion they should have made was that not only Batista needed to be removed from Cuba, but, Cuba also needed to remove the United States intervention in Cuba once and for all. Camilo should be remembered for his bravery and leadership in the battlefield against the Batista forces. But, that is the end of it. Not committed to remove the structure and intervention of the United States from Cuba was on the wrong side of Cuban history.

  14. Mario,

    The running water that is better than what there is in Cuba is more expensive too…and now California don’t have enough fresh water and are processing Ocean Water into potable water. Going forward the cost of water in California is going to rival the price of gasoline in high price. Climate change, artificial destruction of fresh water, destruction of biodiversity; all trophies of Capitalism…oh…and let’s not forget unsustainable abundance which drives all of those major accomplishments of capitalism.

  15. Sorry Mario, keep up your ridiculous lies.

    You have every right to lie all you want in the land of the free.

    When will Cubans have the right to tell the truth?

    And you still haven’t told us how you feel about Fidel killing Camilo Cienfuegos.

  16. Mario,

    Stop your ridiculous lies.

    In San Francisco the median rent is about $1500 / month, the highest in the the USA.

    Median salary in San Francisco is $ 80,000 / year or about $ 6600 / month.

    You can look these figures up for yourself in government, social science and housing advocacy web sites.

    In Havana, rents are now going from $ 40 to well over $100 dollars a month based on everyone I know who lives there. I would say the median is now about $ 60 / month.

    In Havana, the median salary is $ 20 / month or less.

    That’s why armchair socialists like yourself prefer capitalism and can only lie to defend your hypocrisy.

  17. Omar,
    I can only add to your comment, that a rent for two bedroom apartment in San Francisco, nothing luxury, costs $4600 PER MONTH. Yeah, running water is better than in Cuba.

    Whereas the rent for a similar apartment in Havana, say in Alamar, is……. those who say that Cubans make $20 a month may answer this.

  18. Fidel was sick enough to order the bombing of Cubana Flight 455 as well. He really is that sick.

    It is certain that Castro knew beforehand the plane would be blown up and did nothing to stop it.

    And the person who carried out the bombing, Ricardo “Mono” Morales Navarrete, was suspected of being a Castro spy.

    The exile community was so full of Castro’s spies, no act of terrorism was ever committed in Cuba without Fidel Castro’s knowledge and consent.

  19. Sandokan,

    Good video on Fidel killing Camilo Cienfuegos.

    Everybody who knew him says that Fidel is always acting, even when his “friends” are murdered or disappear, usually at his orders.

    Fidel acts sad or angry in public and then goes fishing right after or orders his guards to bring him one of his mistresses.

  20. Mario,
    that is correct…..the internet, computers and cell phones facilitate oppression and intervention. The United States has no problem finding proxies to spread their soft power around the World with these communication tools. It is so important that the State Department has added a whole new department to provide structure to this way of using the communication technology around the World. The goal is to have the World depend on U.S. communication technology. ConAgra, the largest food company in the World. Monsanto with generic engineered grain to dominate the grain markets of the World. The largest standing army of spies, conventional and nuclear forces in the World. The Center for financial products in the World. But, all this great wealth is not being shared by Americans. We have millions working without health insurance, temporary jobs, destroyed cities, drug business in the billions of dollars. Only a small fraction of the population can afford to pay for education without taking out loans that crushes your home budgets. Affordable organically grown food ( food nature intended for us to eat) is out of reach of most Americans. They have to survive eating food alter by artificial ingredients. Public transportation is not very good. Automobiles have to be imported because Americans will not buy American made cars because they are too expensive or of lower quality than foreign automobiles. Discrimination of minorities is still today a national concern. Mexicans, in particularly have become once again ( in some parts of the country) unwanted immigrants. Our democracy has evolved over the years into a Money Democracy ( the candidate that spends the most money to get elected wins. Not the issues he/she stands for). The privacy of Americans has evaporated with the new technologies. Cameras on the streets, telephone communications recorded or “bugged”, at work, there is no e-mail that you send that someone else in Management has access to it. Tracking devices on phones, cars, etc that can identify every move you make. Satellite that can see the movement of everyone observe businesses from above. The great hypocracy of using the banner of freedom, democracy, human rights, free economy when Americans live in the most controlled society in the World….


    VOICE OF AMERICA: US Might Further Ease Cuba Embargo, Official Says
    HAVANA— U.S. President Barack Obama could further relax the U.S. trade embargo of Cuba, a senior State Department official said on Tuesday, adding that Washington would not first demand human rights progress from Havana.
    Obama has twice used executive authority to ease the embargo as part of his opening to Cuba, and more such regulatory changes could come if Cuba can absorb those made to date, said David Thorne, a senior adviser to Secretary of State John Kerry.

    “We are making progress. We are making regulatory changes. We’ll make more,” Thorne told Reuters in an interview.

    Obama has eased travel restrictions on Americans, authorized telecommunications companies to operate in Cuba, and permitted trade with Cuba’s small but growing private sector, among other measures.

    But Cuba has been slow to embrace U.S. business, citing its inability to use dollars or receive U.S. credits under the embargo. In one notable exception, Cuban state telecommunications monopoly Etecsa on Monday signed a roaming agreement with U.S. carrier Sprint Corp.



  22. Omar, did you notice that all these di$$idents who yell so loud about freedom, internet and state surveillance are running their propaganda blogs as if Edward Snowden did not exist?

    If Snowden was Cuban he would already have the Nobel Prize in his pocket and the troublemakers would be erecting his monument on the Malecon

  23. Humberto….so what is new….don’t you believe that this site is monitored by both Cuban and American security forces….every country in the World engages in surveillance of the internet to fight crime, spies, etc., etc.,….there is no such thing as Freedom….it is only in your mind…

  24. Who murdered Camilo Cienfuegos? – HQ – Documentary w/ English Subtitles

    What an amazing coincident, that Camilo has been recently replace as head of the army by Raul, that the pilot of the British aircraft that followed Camilo’s plane disappeared, that the plane’s mechanic who reported the machine guns were spent was fatally struck by a car the very same day, that the fisherman who witnessed the aerial shooting was interrogated and never heard from again, and that the personal friend looking into the case was gunned down. Absolutely no doubt that the Castro brothers ordered him killed.


    COMMITTEE TO PROTECT JOURNALISTS: 10 Most Censored Countries – The 2015 list of 10 Most Censored Countries is part of CPJ’s annual publication, Attacks on the Press.

    In Cuba (10th most censored), the Internet is available to only a small portion of the population, despite outside investment to bring the country online. China, despite having hundreds of millions of Internet users, maintains the “Great Firewall,” a sophisticated blend of human censors and technological tools, to block critical websites and rein in social media.
    In countries with advanced technology such as China, Internet restrictions are combined with the threat of imprisonment to ensure that critical voices cannot gain leverage online. Thirty-two of China’s 44 jailed journalists worked online.
    In Azerbaijan (fifth most censored), where there is little independent traditional media, criminal defamation laws have been extended to social media and carry a six-month prison sentence. Iran, the seventh most censored country, has one of the toughest Internet censorship regimes worldwide, with millions of websites blocked; it is also the second worst jailer of journalists, with 30 behind bars. Authorities there are suspected of setting up fake versions of popular sites and search engines as part of surveillance techniques.
    Government harassment is a tactic used in at least five of the most censored countries, including Azerbaijan, where offices have been raided, advertisers threatened, and retaliatory charges such as drug possession levied against journalists. In Vietnam, many bloggers are put under surveillance in an attempt to prevent them from attending and reporting on news events. In Iran, journalists’ relatives have been summoned by authorities and told that they could lose their jobs and pensions because of the journalists’ work. And in Cuba, which has made some progress, including resuming diplomatic relations with the U.S. and proposing an end to Castro rule by 2018, the few independent journalists trying to report in the country are still subject to harassment and short-term detention.
    Methodology: The list of 10 most censored countries is based on CPJ research, as well as the expertise of the organization’s staff. Countries are measured with the use of a series of benchmarks, including the absence of privately owned or independent media, blocking of websites, restrictions on electronic recording and dissemination, license requirements to conduct journalism, restrictions on journalists’ movements, monitoring of journalists by authorities, jamming of foreign broadcasts, and blocking of foreign correspondents.



  26. Cuba should not allow to become dependent on American Communication Industries. This is a matter of national security for Cuba. If Cuba becomes dependent on American Communication Industries, this will have the same effect on Cuba as when the United States used to controlled the sugar industry in Cuba when it was a major contributor to the Cuban Economy: Imperialism-communication imperialism. This dependency will have the same impact on Cuban sovereignty and independence as obtaining loans from the IMF, the World Bank or the Import-Export Bank. All organizations owned or dominated or influenced by the United States. The Cuban government will slowly gravitate to becoming another Latin American lapdog for the United States. The Cuban government has to make sure that as the introduction of communication technology moves forward, the offerings of these product and services have economic substitutes from other sources besides the United States and the European Union. Again, slowly integrating Cuba into the 21st Century of Communication and protect the national security of the country is a very complex project which is compounded by the fact that your source for the products and services that are strategically important to Cuba are coming from the country that is responsible for the longest standing aggression and intervention against Cuba’s governance since 1898. And this aggression and intervention from the United States has proxy Cubans (in the island and outside the island) that are willing to metaphorically speaking, bend over and take the invisible donkey kong lesbian harness of American Corporatism/ government up their behind…willingly…completely ignoring the more than 1/2 a century consequences of being a boot licker of the United States.


    GLOBAL VOICE: Cuba Si, Google No: Cuban Officials Rumored to Reject Google’s Free WiFi Offer – 17 July 2015
    Top Cuban officials allegedly have rejected an offer from Google to supply the island with free public WiFi throughout the country. Although neither the company nor the Cuban government has explicitly commented on the matter, multiple news sources seem to have drawn this conclusion from an interview in Juventud Rebelde (“Rebellious Youth”), the island’s long-standing youth newspaper. The interview featured Jose Ramon Machado, a contemporary of the Castro brothers, who after forty years at the helm of Cuba’s Union of Communist Youth appears as determined as ever to instill in young Cubans the values and morals of Cuba’s unique brand of Marxism.

    When the reporter asked Machado what he thought about the value of the Internet for Cuban youth, Machado’s response was clear:

    “Internet access is a great opportunity and at the same time a great challenge, because new technologies are novel and vital, not only for person-to-person communication, but also for development. Everyone knows why there isn’t more Internet [in Cuba]. It’s because of the high cost.

    There are those who would like to give us Internet for free, but they aren’t doing this so that Cubans can communicate with one another, rather they’re doing it with the goal of penetrating us on ideological grounds, in an effort to make a new conquest. We need to get Internet, but in our own way, recognizing that the imperialist intention is to use it as one more way to destroy the Revolution.



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